Home
For authors
Submission status

Archive
Archive (English)
Current
      Volume 114
      Volume 113
      Volume 112
      Volume 111
      Volume 110
      Volume 109
      Volume 108
      Volume 107
      Volume 106
      Volume 105
      Volume 104
      Volume 103
      Volume 102
      Volume 101
      Volume 100
      Volume 99
      Volume 98
      Volume 97
      Volume 96
      Volume 95
      Volume 94
      Volume 93
Search
VOLUME 113 | ISSUE 9 | PAGE 624
Negative temperature: further extensions
Abstract
This paper is motivated by the recent paper [M. Baldovin, S. Iubini, R. Livi, and A. Vulpiani, Statistical mechanics of systems with negative temperature, arXiv:2103.12572]. The authors suggest that negative absolute temperatures are consistent with equilibrium thermodynamics. This is correct, if the environment also has negative temperature. Otherwise such states represent the transient though maybe long-lived metastable effects. Here we consider the extension of the negative temperatures to the relativistic systems. We show that the states with negative temperature are possible in the Dirac vacuum, which is obtained by the PT symmetry transformation from the conventional Dirac sea. If such vacuum with inverse population fills the whole Universe, its thermodynamics determined by negative temperatures becomes equilibrium.