For authors
Submission status

Archive (English)
   Volumes 93-112
   Volumes 113-120
      Volume 120
      Volume 119
      Volume 118
      Volume 117
      Volume 116
      Volume 115
      Volume 114
      Volume 113
VOLUME 116 (2022) | ISSUE 9 | PAGE 577
Particle creation: Schwinger + Unruh + Hawking
We discuss the interconnection between the Schwinger pair creation in electric field, Hawking radiation and particle creation in the Unruh effect. All three processes can be described in terms of the entropy and temperature. These thermodynamic like processes can be combined. We consider the combined process of creation of charged and electrically neutral particles in the electric field, which combine the Schwinger and Unruh effects. We also consider the creation of the charged black and white holes in electric field, which combines the Schwinger effect and the black hole entropy. The combined processes obey the sum rules for the entropy and for the inverse temperature. Some contributions to the entropy and to the temperature are negative, which reflects the quantum entanglement between the created objects.